Industries allow us to easily classify businesses and organizations into groups that produce or distribute similar goods, services, or sources. Every business belongs to at least one or more industries. Companies can be highly specialized and operate in just one industry, or they can be dedicated to multiple sectors at once, in which case such companies are called conglomerates. Industries can be divided into three categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary industries.
Primary industry includes the sectors that provide raw materials, like the agriculture industry, and can be further split into two categories: genetic industry and extractive industry. The genetic industries can be artificially augmented, while with the extractive industries, their output cannot be increased in any way. The secondary industry basically encompasses the manufacturing sector, while the tertiary industry is a service industry, including transportation, hotels, investments, etc.
In this article, we will look at 19 different types of industries based on what value they offer.
In this article, we will cover 19 types of industries. We will include useful and detailed overviews of each industry, which will list points like the industry worth, the leading countries, and companies in each sector. The listed countries and companies are the top ones by various factors, like the revenue or output estimated for a given year or various indexes scores. We will also provide these years to avoid any confusion.
2. 19 Types of Business Industries
2.1 Aerospace Industry
The aerospace industry is all about the research, development, and manufacture of flight vehicles. The sector is also involved in critical systems used for the testing, operation, and maintenance of flight vehicles.
The aviation industry runs on technological and scientific progress. Hence, aerospace systems and components are among the most challenging ones to manufacture. The aerospace industry is characterized by a relatively small number of large firms. In the whole world, only a small representation of 50 countries operates one or more aerospace companies. That is why if a country has a well-developed aerospace sector, it is a good indicator of this country’s technological and economic development, as well as prestige.
The most important customers for the major aerospace countries are, first and foremost, military establishments (both their own and foreign ones), second of all, commercial airlines and then private, business, and non-commercial clients.
The American aerospace industrial complex has taken over the whole industry. The United States has the biggest number of aerospace companies (including more diversified aerospace firms). The Americans supply their own military with flight vehicles and constituent units, while their companies supply military an civil aerospace components to the rest of the globe.
Industry worth: $838B (2017)
Leading countries by revenue: United States $408.4B (49%), France $69B (8.2%), China $61.2B (7.3%), UK $48.8B (5.8%), Germany $46.2B (5.5%), Russia $.1B (3.2%), Canada $24B (2.9%), Japan $21B (2.5%), Spain $14B (1.7%), India (1.3%).
Largest companies: Boeing $93.4B (United States), Airbus $72.3B (EU), Lockheed Martin $51B (United States), United Technologies $30.9B (United States), GE Aviation $27.4B (United States).
Notable associations: The Aerospace Industries Association of America (AIA), the European Association of Aerospace Industries (AECMA), the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies (SJAC).
2.2 Agriculture industry
Farming is the largest industry in the world. Creating job opportunities for more than one billion people, it is also the second-largest global employer (right after the service industry). The sector comprises of the cultivation of plants and livestock that can then be used to produce foods and other goods, which in turn are sold and exported all across the world. The number of people employed in agriculture decreases as the country develops so that the figures can range as much as from over 80% in the least developed countries to less than 2% in the most highly developed countries.
The agriculture sector is most likely the oldest type of industry with its origins dating back to some 15,000–10,000 years ago. The evolution of farming has led to the domestication of many plants and animals, which in result, produce more goods and of better quality, and let us discover its various uses. Now grazing lands and croplands occupy around 50 percent of the Earth’s habitable area. While modern crop production is intensive and productivity-oriented, and it takes advantage of the newest types of fertilizers and pesticides. The use of agrochemicals has had a devastating global effect on the environment. Some of the controversies around the sector include its contribution to global warming, deforestation, water consumption, and pollution, as well as the safety of genetically modified substances and organisms, growth hormones, and antibiotics present in foods.
Industry worth: over $1.3 trillion
Leading countries by output (2018): China $1117B, India $414B, EU $308B, United States $185B, Brazil $162B, Indonesia $141B, Nigeria $123B, Russia $108B.
Largest companies by revenue: Cargill $107.20B (United States), Archer Daniels Midland Company $62.35B (United States), Deere & Company $18.49B (United States), DowDuPont $15.69B (United States), Nutrien $13.67B (United States), Monsanto Company $13.50B (United States).
Notable associations: The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), Association for International Agriculture and Rural Development (AIARD).
2.3 Computer Industry
Computer industry (also known as the IT industry) focuses on designing and developing computer hardware and software, producing computer components and networking infrastructures, as well as various services. In the digital era, when businesses, jobs, and personal lives have gone online, it is close to impossible to pinpoint which area of life does not belong to the IT category.
In its original sense, the Information Technology sector (IT) uses computers to manage data or information, which includes storing, retrieving, transmitting, and manipulating data. The IT industry also uses computer programs to perform operations requiring higher-order thinking. The sector also includes other technologies operating on information, like television, internet, telecommunication, electronics, e-commerce, and emerging fields such as robotics.
Industry worth: $5 trillion (2019)
Leading countries: Japan, United States, South Korea, Germany, China, India, England, Canada.
Largest companies: Apple Inc. $229.2B (United States), Samsung Electronics $211.9B (South Korea), Amazon $177.9B (United States), Foxconn $156B (Taiwan), Alphabet Inc. $110.8B (United States), Microsoft $90.0B (United States), Huawei 91.5B (China), Hitachi $84.6B (Japan), IBM $79.1B (United States), Dell Technologies $78.7B (United States).
Notable associations: The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA).
2.4 Construction Industry
The construction industry contains all of the steps necessary for the building of infrastructure to be put up; from designing and building to maintaining the project. Since constructing is a multiple-step process, it requires a combined effort between specialists from multiple disciplines, like engineering and logistics. Moreover, the modern construction industry must consider ecology, energy conservation, and sustainability in all of its operation.
In general, construction can be divided into three sectors: buildings, infrastructure (also known as heavy or civil engineering) and industrial. Going further, while buildings can be residential and non-residential, the industrial section deals with specialized constructions like process chemical and power generation. On the other hand, infrastructure, as its other names suggest, is about building construction like roads and bridges.
Today, digitization is going further and further, and it is as widespread and welcomed in the construction industry as in any other field. Consequently, construction software is starting to get a lot of attention. The most commonly used software includes Procore, GenieBelt, PlanGrid, and bouw7. These days also management procurement systems are getting popular – that is because they give its users greater control over the procurement processes by i.a. by allowing to designate the work to individual contractors.
Industry worth: $8,452B (2018)
Leading countries: China $1,849B, United States $599B, Japan $569B, India $333B, France $147Bm Germany $143B, Singapore $131B, Canada $131B.
Largest companies: China Communications Construction Company $54.4B (China), PowerChina $45.5B (China), Vinci $44B (Italy), Actividades de Construcción y Servicios $40B (Spanish), Bouygues $37B (France).
Notable associations: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA).
2.5 Education Industry
The education industry or education system is represented by a group of institutions that provide education. These institutes involve ministries of education, teacher training institutions, public or private schools, universities, etc.
The education sector is a complicated system, and it requires a broad scope of people who design learning materials and curricula, supervises schools, teaches students, etc.). Because of all these extensive interactions and their far-reaching consequences, the education industry is an integral part of society. In most places in the world, education is compulsory, and children are obliged to attend schools up to a certain age.
Alternative forms of learning include e-learning through open educational resources, informal learning, homeschooling, and similar. Today, Internet-based learning is favored over traditional approaches; this is why many reputable universities offer free or almost free courses. But no matter what the form of learning is, the global trend is that the number of enrolling students is increasing each year in both traditional and online courses.
Industry worth: $4.4 trillion (2013)
Top educational organizations: Khan Academy, Kaplan, Inc., Knewton, Alison, Adtalem Global Education.
Top educational websites: Coursera edX, Codecademy, Udacity, The Open University, Academic Earth, BrainPop.
Notable associations: The Programme for International Student Assessment, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.
2.6 Electronics Industry
The electronics industry began the 20th century with the crucial point being in the 1990s when personal computers became popular and more accessible. The electronics sector is involved in producing, marketing and selling electrical and electronic devices, primarily consumer electronics. This type of industry engages large numbers of electronics engineers and technicians who take part in designing, testing, and manufacturing of electronic devices. Above that, the sector also includes carrying out some maintenance works and repairs and assisting in the installation process.
The electronics sector now mostly focuses on digital technology, including AI-based goods, and it works intensely towards developing wireless charging and smart cars.
Due to its expansion, the electronics sector faces some serious ecological issues. The industry generates massive electronic waste every year because of its use of toxic materials and recycling difficulty. The United States and China are each producing 3 million tons of electronic waste annually, which is more than any other country in the world. China is also one of the major electronic waste dumping ground for developed countries. To address these pressing concerns, certain regulations and environmental legislation and have been introduced.
Industry worth: $1,172B (2017)
Leading countries by worth of exported electronic circuit components (2018): Hong Kong $132B (18.4%), South Korea $109.8B (15.3%), Taiwan $95.9B (13.4%), China $84.7B (11.8%), Singapore $82.8B (11.6%), Malaysia $45.8B (6.4%), United States $37.7B (5.3%), Japan $28B (3.9%).
Largest companies: Samsung Electronics $173.96B (South Korea), Hon Hai Precision Industry (Foxconn) $135.13B (Taiwan), Hitachi $84.56B (Japan), Sony $70.17B (Japan), Panasonic $67.78B (Japan).
Notable associations: The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
2.7 Energy Industry
The energy industry is involved in the production and sale of energy, which entails numerous operations like fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining, and marketing. The energy industry encompasses the following sectors: the petroleum industry, the gas industry, the electrical power industry, the coal industry, the nuclear power industry, the renewable energy industry, and lastly, traditional energy industry in poorer countries.
The modern world consumes tons of fuel, and the energy industry is a crucial part of the infrastructure and life in nearly all societies. As energy has become essential in industrial societies, the ownership and control of energy resources play a strategic role in international politics. Because conventional energy sources are limited and damaging to the environment, it has become the top priority of world leaders to maximize the use of alternate energy sources and fund research devoted to renewable energy. When it comes to traditional energy, it can be saved through energy conservation, which is simply achieved by one’s better management of energy.
Industry worth: $1.4 trillion (2016)
Leading countries by generated energy from renewable sources: China, United States, Brazil, Canada, India, Germany, Russia, Japan.
Largest companies by highest market cap: Exxon Mobil Corporation (United States), Royal Dutch Shell (Netherlands, UK), Chevron Corporation (United States), Total S.A. (France), BP (UK), PetroChina (China).
Notable associations: United States Energy Association (USEA), the Energy Industries Council (EIC), the Association of Energy Trading (TOE).
2.8 Entertainment Industry
The entertainment industry, commonly referred to as show business, employs hundreds of thousands of people and consists of three main groups of people. The business side of the industry includes managers, agents, producers, and distributors. The creative side includes entertainers, like artists, performers, musicians, writers, and technicians like lighting technicians or cameramen. The viewers form the core part of the entertainment sector.
The modern entertainment industry is inseparable with the fashion industry. Celebrities set and follow trends and are closely watched for their fashion choices. Although the entertainment sector was present all through the centuries, the show business as we know it today has become highly commercialized. Also, the means of entertaining people have changed a lot. For example, these days, the main place people visit to be entertained is Youtube and similar online platforms, while the traditional television is slowly dying out due to video streaming services like Netflix and Amazon Prime.
The United States is the largest Media & Entertainment in the world. About one-third of the global industry worth is made up by the United States entertainment industry, with Hollywood producing half of all the films shot in the United States.
Industry worth: $1.9 trillion (2016)
Leading countries: United States, China, India, Japan, UK.
Largest companies by revenue (2018): Disney $59.4B (United States), Time Warner $33B (United States), NBC $33B (United States), Fox $30.4B (United States), Netflix $15.79B (United States), CBS $14.51B (United States), Viacom $12.77B (United States).
Notable associations: The Music & Entertainment Industry Educators Association (MEIEA), Entertainment Industry Association of Consultants & Educators (eiACE), the Themed Entertainment Association (TEA).
2.9 Food Industry
The food industry is an aggregation of diverse businesses which together are responsible for supplying food to the global population. In order to produce food, the industry uses huge masses of raw material that it obtains directly from the farming sector. Thus, the industry is almost entirely dependent on the agriculture industry. The sector encompasses everything from farming and food production, preservation, packaging, and distribution, to retail and catering. Such a complex industry requires a wide range of skills, which in turn creates workplaces in several hundred occupation types.
The food sector is highly diversified; the food companies vary substantially in sizes, company organization, workforce proportions, and levels of mechanization. The food services like catering, and highly-processed and ready–to–go foods have become especially popular in the hectic modern world.
Industry worth: $1.46 trillion (2014)
Leading countries by the value of food exports: United States, Germany, United Kingdom, China, France, Netherlands, Japan.
Largest companies by revenue (2017): Cargill $109.70B (United States), Nestle $91.96B (Switzerland), PepsiCo $63.52B (United States), Archer Daniels Midland Company $60.82B (United States), Sysco Corporation $55.37B (United States), JBS $49.23B (United States), Bunge $45.79B (United States), George Weston $38.46B (Canada), Mars $35B (United States).
Notable associations: Food Industry Association Executives (FIAE), Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA), FoodDrinkEurope, American Feed Industry Association (AFIA), Institute of Food Technologists (IFT).
2.10 Healthcare Industry
The healthcare industry is a global collective of diverse sectors that provides remedial, diagnostic, curative, preventive, rehabilitative, palliative, therapeutic care. Generally, this industry helps to revive and maintain the health of people through the use of the goods and services provided by it. Today, healthcare is one of the world’s largest and fastest-growing industries. The industry has expanded into multiple disciplines and operates on teams of professionals that focus on patients’ individual needs. There are private and public companies, as well as free organizations that provide healthcare to the world’s population.
The US is one of the countries that spend the most on healthcare in the world. In 2017, healthcare expenditures paid to hospitals, medical and clinical specialists, nursing homes, pharmacies, medical device producents and other consumed 17.9 percent of the GDP of the United States, the largest of any nation in the world.
Industry worth: $7.077 trillion (2015)
Countries by health consumption spending per capita: United States $10,224, Switzerland $8,009, Germany $5,728, Sweden $5,511, Austria $5,440, Netherlands $5,386, France $4,902, Canada $4,826, Belgium $4,774, Japan $4,717.
Largest companies by revenue (2017): McKesson Corporation $208.3B (United States), UnitedHealth Group $201B (United States), CVS Health $184.7B (United States), AmerisourceBergen Corporation $153.1B (United States), Cardinal Health $129.9B (United States), Express Scripts Holding $100.06B (United States), Anthem $89.06B (United States), Kaiser Permanente $72.7B (United States).
Notable associations: The World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC).
2.11 Hospitality Industry
The hospitality industry combines many subcategories from the service sector. The services offered by this industry include lodging, meals, event planning, gyms, beauty centers, amusement parks, transportation, and traveling. All these hospitality units require maintenance and management skills and create local jobs for receptionists, servers, housekeepers, porters, cooks, bartenders, managers, etc.
The hospitality industry is a highly customer-oriented market and provides services to the traveling public on a commercial basis. The hospitality industry is peculiar because it depends solely on people’s wants – whether and how they want to spend their leisure time and extra money. These days customers are spoilt for choice; they can choose from many types of accommodation offering plenty of attractions and services, like b&b, hotels, inns, or resorts, and then book the perfect hotel online.
Industry worth: $500B (2018)
Leading countries by the number of rooms: the United States (634,501 rooms); China (556,645 rooms), Indonesia (66,759 rooms), Germany (47,155 rooms), the UK (36,487 rooms).
Largest companies (2018): Marriott International, Inc. 20.75 B, Hilton 8.9 B, Jin Jiang International Hotel Management Co. Ltd. 8.68 B, Holiday Inn 6.5 B, Starwood 6.115 B (2017), Wyndham Hotel Group 5.07 B, Hyatt Hotels Corporation 4.68 B, InterContinental Hotels Group PLC (IHG) 4.337 B, Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts 2.53 B (2013).
Notable associations: The American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA), UKHospitality, International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IHRA).
2.12 Manufacturing Industry
The manufacturing industry is closely associated with engineering and industrial design. The sector processes raw materials into a final product through the use of manual labor or machinery on a global scale. Such assembled goods are then distributed and sold to other manufacturers to be transformed with other components into more complex goods, or sold directly to retailers. Many major sectors, like food industry, wood industry, paper industry, petroleum industry, or transportation equipment industry, qualify as manufacturing industries, too.
The industry is governed by labor laws as well as management and quality control. We also cannot ignore the fact that the manufacturing industry often uses hazardous materials, which has its downsides and environmental costs. Such practice entails huge clean-up costs and poses a health risk to workers. Hence to address this problem, the industrial activity is subject to regulations and pollution taxes.
Industry worth: $2.33 trillion (2018)
Leading countries by manufacturing output (2017): China 3,590,977, European Union 2,512,108, United States 2,160,559 (2016), Japan 1,041,770 (2016), Germany 777,794, South Korea 422,065, India 394,172, Italy 290,047, France 261,831, United Kingdom 236,662.
Largest companies by revenue (2017): Volkswagen Group 288,888B (Automotive, Germany), Toyota Group 265,172B (Engineering, Japan), Apple 229,234B (Electronics, United States), Samsung Electronics 211,940B (Electronics, South Korea), Daimler 185,235B (Automotive, Germany), Exor 161,677B (Automotive, Italy), General Motors 157,311B (Automotive, United States), Ford 156,776B (Automotive, United States), Hon Hai Precision Industry 154,699B (Electronics, Taiwan).
Notable associations: Manufacturing Enterprise Solutions Association (MESA), Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM), Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International (FMA).
2.13 Mining Industry
The mining industry refers to the extraction of valuable minerals, metals, and other geological resources from the earth all across the globe. The sector is also connected with the exploration and locating of geological deposits. Those deposits include ore body, vein, lode, seam, reef or placer reservoirs. Ores used by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, and many more. The mining sector aims at providing such materials that cannot be obtained through the agricultural activities, or feasibly produced in a laboratory. Raw materials obtained from the ores and others are mainly used in chemical and metallurgical industries and are used for commercial purposes and jewelry.
Mining operations carry negative consequences for the environment, even after the mine has closed. Hence, most countries have committed to respecting regulations to decrease the impact. Another problem is the difficulty of metal recycling, which leads to massive amounts of metal ending up at landfills. Also, work safety has improved a lot in recent years, which used to be a major concern in the industry.
Industry worth: $77.8B (2018)
Leading countries by gold production: China, Australia, Russia, the United States, Canada, Peru, South Africa.
Leading countries by coal production: China, India, United States, European Union, Australia, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa.
Largest companies by market cap (2017): BHP 87.86bn (Australia), Rio Tinto 73.79B (UK- Australia) China Shenhua Energy 62.4B (China) Glencore Xstrata 51.37B (Switzerland) Vale 40.17B (Brazil) Coal India $24.62B (India) Barrick Gold 18.28B (Canada) Newmont Mining 17.51B (United States), Anglo American 17.33B (United States).
Notable associations: International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM), National Mining Association (NMA), Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC).
2.14 Music Industry
The music industry is a central part of the business industry. It consists of companies and individual musicians who compose, produce, and distribute their pieces and live shows. The industry employs a broad range of professions and organizations of people. The music business thrives due to the work of songwriters, composers, and technicians who produce new music, as well as those who perform the music, like singers and musicians. Later on, the music is recorded, marketed and sold through the service of recording labels and studios, music publishers, and online music shops. Lastly, the music is performed and broadcasted; all that can happen thanks to the efforts of many professionals involved in the music sector, including the PR people.
The music market is dominated by the three recording labels: the French Universal Music Group, the Japanese Sony Music Entertainment, and the American Warner Music Group (United States). Since the 2000s, the internet has taken over the music industry completely, and online music platforms have experienced continuous growth in sales. As a result, the sales of traditionally recorded music have dropped drastically. Around the same time, more people have become interested in live music. Right now, online streaming services have nearly no competitors in the music market. The top streaming services like Apple’s iTunes and Spotify offer access to millions of songs, some services being free, while others have the ads-free option for a monthly subscription.
Industry worth: $51,58B (2018)
Leading countries (2015): United States $4,898 B, Japan $2,628B, Germany $1,405B, United Kingdom $1,335B, France $843B, Australia $376B, Canada $343B, South Korea $266B, Brazil $247B, Italy $235B.
Leading streaming services by PageRank*: Apple Music 100, Billboard 96.15, Google Play 92.3, iTunes 61.53, Universal Music Group 55.38, Twitter Music 53.02, Rolling Stone 49.23, Spotify 44.61, Sony Music 40.77, E! Online 39.23.
* PageRank (PR) score is used by Google Search and measures the importance of website pages.
Notable associations: Music Publishers Association, American Federation of Musicians, American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers.
2.15 News Media Industry
The news media industry is dedicated to providing news to the general public or a more specific target of readers or listeners. The news media include traditional print media (newspapers, newsmagazines), broadcast news (radio, television), and the Internet (online newspapers and magazines, news blogs, podcasts, apps, etc.).
The most widely read newspapers like the New York Times and Washington posts are available in both paper form and online, although all the traditional newspapers have been gradually pushed to the side by social media that offer instant access to the most recent news. It is so because people these days feel like they need to keep up with the latest events in the world and are suffering from information overload.
Industry worth: $150.2B (2017)
Countries with the greatest freedom of the press (by Press Freedom Index): Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland, Switzerland, Jamaica, Belgium, New Zealand, Denmark, Costa Rica, Austria.
Largest companies by market cap (2018): News Corp. $7.48B, The New York Times Company $4.21B, Tribune Media Co. $3.39B, Daily Mail and General Trust plc $2.82B, E. W. Scripps $1.38B, Gannett Co. Inc. $1.12B, Daily Journal Corporation $325.86B.
Notable associations: News Media Association (NMA), World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers (WAN-IFRA).
2.16 Pharmaceutical Industry
The pharmaceutical industry is highly research-based; it develops, manufactures, and distributes drugs and medications to patients that can be advised or prescribed by the doctor or self-administered. The drugs are designed to cure or vaccinate patients, prevent infections, or reduce the symptoms. The industry brings many risks and is closely watched by government agencies and independent organizations and governed by multiple laws and regulations which cover, i.a. the patenting and safety of drugs. The pharmaceutical sector cooperates with biotechnology companies in drug discovery and development.
The advancement of this industry is crucial for the whole world. The findings in the field of bioscience, particularly biotechnology, and the development of new technologies have made it possible to control and even stop certain diseases, such as HIV.
The United States comprises of over one-third of the global pharmaceutical market, with annual sales reaching $340 billion.
Industry worth: $934.8B (2017)
Leading countries by the value market: The United States, Japan, China, Germany, France, Brazil, Italy, the UK, Canada, Spain.
Largest companies: Johnson & Johnson $81.6B, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd $57.73B, Pfizer Inc $53.6B, Novartis $51.9B, Bayer AG $45.27B, Merck & Co Inc $42.3B, GlaxoSmithKline Plc $40B, Sanofi $39.23B, AbbVie Inc $32.73B.
Notable associations: World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
2.17 Telecommunication industry
The telecommunication industry is a broad category of fields within the sector of information and communication technology. This sector enables wireless or cable communication through the use of mobile phones, internet, and other telecommunication services. Internet service providers, wireless operators, and satellite companies dominate in this industry. These days, phone calls are still a standard form of communication, but they are not that popular anymore. Conversations over the phone have been replaced by text and image messages, and most recently, video phone calls. All that being said; still, most of the communication that happens on our phones is via online messaging apps.
Big corporation market is the ideal target audience for the telecommunication industry, while small business is the most challenging market to acquire. Big enterprises focus mostly on the performance and quality of services they get, while the costs do not seem to matter so much. With small businesses, everything else becomes secondary to price.
Industry worth: $1.4 trillion (2017)
Leading countries by Telecoms Maturity Index in Europe: Denmark, Estonia, Sweden, UK, France, Germany, Malta, Luxembourg, Ireland.
Largest companies by market value (2019): Verizon Communications Inc. $221.39B (United States), China Mobile Ltd. $217.5B (China), AT&T Inc. $211.688B (United States), Softbank Group Corp. $98.785B (Japan), Nippon Teleg. Telephone Corp. $81.564B (Japan), Deutsche Telekom AG $67.334B (Germany), America Movil $52.505B (Mexico).
Notable associations: American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).
2.18 Transport Industry
The transport industry is involved in the transport of humans, animals, and goods from one place to another. The sector does that by various modes of transport, from which the most common ones are air, land, and water. The industry includes infrastructures, vehicles, and business operations. The infrastructure consists of the fixed networks, including roads, railways, airways, canals, etc. and their respective terminals. Operations and vehicles are closely related; the operations decide how the vehicles are handled through various policies and legislations.
Depending on what is being transported, the industry can be divided into passenger transport, which can be public or private, and freight transport of animals and goods.
The sector allows carrying goods and people over long distances and at high speed, which is fundamental for the progress of civilization and technological advancement. Unfortunately, most modes of transport contribute to air pollution and consume much land.
Industry worth: $700B (2017)
Leading countries by Logistics Performance Index (2018): Germany, Sweden, Belgium, Austria, Japan, Netherlands, Singapore, Denmark, United Kingdom, Finland.
Largest logistics companies (2019): XPO Logistics Inc. (United States), UPS Supply Chain Solutions (United States), DHL Supply Chain (United States), J.B. Hunt Transport Services (United States), C.H. Robinson Worldwide (United States), Ryder Supply Chain Solutions (United States), Expeditors International of Washington (United States).
Notable associations: American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI), American Trucking Association (ATA), International Air Transport Association (IATA).
2.19 World Wide Web Industry
The World Wide Web has dominated all of the other industry types. The Web accumulates documents and resources which can be accessed by their URLs. Online users can access such resources using web browsers, like Google or Yahoo. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee is credited for having invented the Web in 1989. It was only after a decade that his invention became popular.
The emergence of the world wide web has dramatically changed our world and open new doors to various businesses and fields. From operating business solely online to interact with the target audience and partners at every level. The Web today is full of informative websites, online stores, entertainment services, governmental websites, and other platforms.
The Internet influenced sales: $2.84 trillion (2018)
Leading countries by accessibility and affordability (2014): Korea, Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Norway, Iceland, United Kingdom, Sweden, Singapore, Netherland, Belgium, Australia.
Largest companies by revenue (2017): Alphabet Inc. (Google) $110.86B (2018, United States), Amazon $177.866B (United States), Tencent Holdings: $21.9B (China), Facebook $40.65B (United States), Alibaba $15.69B (2016, China), Netflix $11.69B (United States), Priceline $10.74B (2016, United States).
Notable associations: International Web Association (IWA), the International Association of Employment Web Sites (IAEWS).
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